**Synopsis of scientific career:** My initial research was on instabilities in fusion energy relevant plasmas. I focused on the kinetic theory analysis of instabilities driven by gradients in density and temperature – so-called “drift waves.” Since all plasmas have edges (hence gradients in density and temperature) I also extended my research to applications in magnetospheric plasmas. Along the way, I developed an interest in symbolic computation and applications of artificial intelligence methodologies to problems in science and engineering. Research funds ebb and flow in the sciences and by the early 90s I was spending more time writing proposals than doing the research and computational modeling I enjoyed. S0, I switched to quantitative finance where there were many institutions interested in competent computational modelers. Somewhat to my surprise, I found the modeling of financial reality to be just as challenging and fun as the modeling of physical reality. I wound up spending most of my remaining working years on Wall Street.

## Published articles in peer-reviewed journals – N. T. Gladd

Still get some Google Scholar hits on this old work.

*Structuring of a Plasma Shell Expanding into a Magnetized Plasma at Sub-Alfvenic Speed*, with S. H. Brecht, submitted to Third Special Topic Issue of IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science on Space and Cosmic Plasmas, (1992).

*Electromagnetic Normal Modes of an Expanding Plasma Shell*, with S. H. Brecht, submitted to J. Geophys. Res., (1992).

*Nonlocal Theory of Lower-Hybrid Drift Instability for a Plasma Shell Expanding into a Magnetic Field*, with Stephen H. Brecht, Phys. Fluids **B3**, 3232 (1991).

*Collisionless Drift-Tearing Modes and the Magnetic Percolation Model of Flux Transfer Event Formation*, in __Physics of Space Plasmas (1990)__, ed. T. Chang, G. B. Crew and J. R. Jasperse, Scientific Publishers, 1991

*Collisionless Drift-Tearing Modes in the Magnetopause*, J. Geophys. Res.** 95**, 20899 (1990).

*Object-oriented Interface System for Particle-In-Cell Simulations*, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 35, 2010 (1988).

*Effect of Field-Aligned Current on the Ion-Temperature-Gradient-Driven Drift Mode*, Phys. Fluids 30, 1566 (1987).

*One-Dimensional Transport Models with Local and Nonlocal Lower-Hybrid-Drift Waves in Field-Reversed Configurations*, with S. Hamasaki and N. A. Krall, Phys. Fluids **29**, 4131 (1986).

*Artificial Intelligence Methods for Facilitating Large-Scale Numerical Computations*, with N. A. Krall, in __Workshop on Coupling Symbolic and Numerical Computing in Expert Systems__, J. S. Kowalik, editor (North-Holland, p. 123, 1986).

*Ion Cyclotron Waves in Elmo Bumpy Torus: Perturbation Analysis of the Effects of Wall Bumpiness*, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science **PS-13**, 346 (1975).

*Microstability Properties of the Sheath Region of a Field Reversed Configuration*, with A. G. Sgro and D. W. Hewett, Phys. Fluids **28**, 2222 (l985).

*Drift Instabilities and the Dynamo Effect in the Reversed Field Pinch*, with N. A. Krall, R. W. Moses, and A. R. Jacobson, Tenth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, London, England, l984, Vol. II, p. 6l9 (IAEA, Vienna, l985).

*Symbolic Manipulation Techniques for Plasma Kinetic Theory Derivations*, J. Computational Physics **56**, l75 (l984).

*Stabilization of the Tearing Mode in High-Temperature Plasma*, with J. F. Drake, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., and A. B. Hassam, Phys. Fluids **26**, 2509 (l983).

*Stabilization of the Lower-Hybrid-Drift Instability in Finite Plasmas*, with J. F. Drake and J. D. Huba, Phys. Fluids **26**, 2247 (l983).

*The Whistler Instability at Relativistic Energies*, Phys. Fluids **26**, 974 (l983).

*Theory of Transport and Heating in EBT*, with C. L. Hedrick, D. B. Batchlor, G. L. Chen, L. E. Deleanu, R. C. Goldfinger, D. E. Hastings, E. F. Jaeger, D. K. Lee, C. W. Nester, L.W. Owen, D. A. Spong, J. S. Tolliver, N. A. Uckan, S. Hamasaki, N. A. Krall, H. Weitzner, R. J. Kashuba, M. R. Gordinier, T. L. Owens, D. G. Swanson, and S. Tamor, IAEA-CN-41/V-ll (l982).

*Stabilization of the Tearing Mode in High-Temperature Plasma*, with J. F. Drake, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., and A. B. Hassam, IAEA-CN-4l/P-2-3 (l982).

*The Universal Instability in a Plasma Sheath*, with R. Marchand and Y. C. Lee, Phys. Fluids **25**, l24l (l982).

*The Lower-Hybrid-Drift Instability in Non-antiparallel Reversed Field Plasmas*, with J. D. Huba and J. F. Drake, J. Geophys. Res. 87, l697 (l982).

*Microstability Properties of the EBT Boundary Layer*, with N. A. Krall, Phys. Fluids **25**, l24l (l982).

*On the Role of the Lower-Hybrid-Drift Instability in Substorm Dynamics*, with J. D. Huba and J. F. Drake, J. Geophys. Res. **86**, 588l (l98l).

*Microinstability of the EBT Boundary*, with N. A. Krall, S. Hamasaki, and J. L. Sperling, Proceedings of the Workshop on EBT Stability Theory, p. l8l, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (l98l).

*Magnetic Field Diffusion and Dissipation in Reversed Field Plasmas*, with J. F. Drake and J. D. Huba, Phys. Fluids **24**, 78 (l98l).

*Unstable Dissipative Drift Modes in a Sheared Magnetic Field*, with C. L. Chang, J. F. Drake, and C. S. Liu, Phys. Fluids **23**, l998 (l980).

*Electron Temperature Gradient Driven Microtearing Modes*, with J. F. Drake, C. L. Chang, and C. S. Liu, Phys. Fluids **23**, ll82 (l980).

*Lower-Hybrid-Drift Instability in Field Reversed Plasmas*, with J. D. Huba and J. F. Drake, Phys. Fluids **23**, 552 (l980).

*Microtearing Modes and Anomalous Transport in Tokamaks*, with J. F. Drake, C. S. Liu, and C. L. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. **44**, 994 (l980).

*Current Driven Drift Modes in Sheared Magnetic Field*, with C. S. Liu, Phys. Fluids **22**, l289 (l979).

*Warm Plasma Effects on Drift Cyclotron Loss Cone Mode*, with P. H. Ng and C. S. Liu, Phys. Fluids **22**, ll4l (l979).

*Finite Beta Effects on the Drift-Cyclotron Instability*, with J. D. Huba, Phys. Fluids **22**, 9ll (l979).

*Drift Wave Stability and Transport Theory in Fusion Systems*, with N. A. Krall, S. Hamasaki, J. B. McBride, P. H. Ng, H. H. Chen, J. D. Huba, R.C. Davidson, R. E. Aamodt, Y. C. Lee, C. S. Liu, D. R. Nicholson, M. N. Rosenbluth, and D. Chernin, Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, l978, Vol. II, p. 483, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (l979).

*Tormac Confinement, Theory and Experiment*, with M. A. Levine, H. L. Berk, I. G. Brown, J. Coonrod, B. Feinberg, M. Greenwald, J. Hammer, W. B. Kunkel, B. R. Myers, R. A. Niland, A. Sessler, W. Sharp, R. Shaw, L. Soroka, M. Vella, A. H. Boozer, and M. A. Mostron, Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, l978, Vol. II, p. 8l, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (l979).

*Lower-Hybrid-Drift Wave Turbulence in the Distant Magnetotail*, with J. D. Huba and K. Papadopoulos, J. Geophys. Res. **83**, 652l7 (l978).

*Influence of Magnetic Shear on the Lower-Hybrid-Drift Instability in Toroidal Reversed Field Pinches*, with R. C. Davidson and Y. Goren, Phys. Fluids **21**, 992 (l978).

*Influence of Strong Inhomogeneities and Magnetic Shear on Microstability Properties of the Tormac Sheath,* with R. C. Davidson, Phys. Fluids **21**, l876 (l977).

*Influence of Strong Inhomogeneities on High Frequency Mirror-Drift-Cone and Convective-Loss-Cone Instabilities*, with R. C. Davidson, Phys. Fluids **20**, l5l6 (l977).

*Effects of Finite Plasma Beta on the Lower-Hybrid-Drift Instability*, with R. C. Davidson, C. S. Wu, and J. D. Huba, Phys. Fluids **20**, 30l (l977).

*Kinetic and Numerical Studies of Microstability Properties and Anomalous Transport in Theta Pinches*, with R. C. Davidson, J. D. Huba, B. H. Hui, P. C. Liewer, C. S. Liu, J. P. Mondt, J. M. Ogden, C. S. Wu, S. Hamasaki, N. A. Krall, and C. E. Wagner, Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, l976, Vol. III, p. ll3, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (l977).

*Influence of Finite **β Effects on the Lower-Hybrid-Drift Instability in Post-Implosion Theta Pinches*, with R. C. Davidson, C. S. Wu, and J. D. Huba, Phys. Rev. Lett. **37**, 750 (l977).

*The Lower-Hybrid Drift Instability as a Source of Anomalous Resistivity for Magetic Field Line Reconnection*, with J. D. Huba and K. D. Papadopoulos, Geophys. Res. Lett. **4**, l25 (l977).

*The Lower Hybrid Drift Instability and the Modified Two Stream Instability in High Density Theta Pinch Environments*, Plasma Physics **l8**, 27 (l976).

*Anomalous Transport Properties Associated with the Lower-Hybrid-Drift Instability*, with R. C. Davidson, Phys. Fluids **18**, l327 (l975).

*Theoretical and Numerical Studies of High-**β Plasma*, with N. A. Krall, S. Hamasaki, R. C. Davidson, P. C. Liewer, C. Wagner, D. W. Hewitt, C. W. Nielson, T. A. Oliphant, and A. G. Sgro, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Conference on Plasma Physics, Tokyo, Japan (November l974).

*Trapped Ion Instability in Plasma with Magnetic Shear*, with D. W. Ross, Phys. Fluids **16**, l706 (l973).

*Critical Shear and Growth Rates for Drift Waves in a Nonuniform Current-Carrying Plasma*, with C. W. Horton, Jr., Phys. Fluids **16**, 879 (l973).

*Low Frequency Instabilities in Plasma with Magnetic Shear*, (Thesis – The University of Texas at Austin, l972), Center for Plasma Physics Report No. 44, The University of Texas at Austin, Texas.